Rajapalayam (Tamil language: இராஜபாளையம்) is a town and a special grade municipality in Virudhunagar district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located 85 km southwest of Madurai in the state of Tamil Nadu. Its main attractions are the Ayyanar Falls and the neighbour town of Srivilliputtur. The economy is based on the manufacture of textiles, and there are mills for spinning and weaving cotton, as well as a large cotton market. It's also known for the Rajapalayam breed of dogs. As of 2011, the town had a population of 130,442.
Initially, agriculture was the principal source of living for the people of Rajapalayam. In the mid 1900s, Rajapalayam gradually evolved into a thriving business community. Due to various ambitious entrepreneurs and hard-working people, commerce developed quickly in the region and several industries, particularly cotton-based, flourished. Hence it got the name "Cotton city".