The Chartreux is a rare breed of domestic cat from France and is recognised by a number of registries around the world. It is not recognised by the GCCF in the UK, ostensibly for being too similar to the British Shorthair, one of whose colours is a similar blue-grey. The Chartreux is large and muscular, with relatively short, fine-boned limbs, and very fast reflexes. They are known for their Blue#Animals (grey) water-resistant short hair double coats which are often slightly nappy in texture (often showing "breaks" like a sheepskin) and orange- or copper-colored eyes. Chartreux cats are also known for their "smile": due to the structure of their heads and their tapered muzzles, they often appear to be smiling. Chartreux are exceptional hunters and are highly prized by farmers.As for every French cat with a Pedigree (animal), the first letter of the official name of a Chartreux cat encodes the year of its birth; all Chartreux born in the same year have official names beginning with the same letter. The code letters rotate through the alphabet each year, omitting the letters K, Q, W, X, Y, and Z. For example, a Chartreux born in 2011 would have an official name starting with the letter G.
The Chartreux is mentioned for the first time in 1558 by Joachim du Bellay in a poem entitled Vers Français sur la mort d'un petit chat (French verse on a small kitten's death). There is another representation of a Chartreux in 1747 in the 's painting Magdaleine Pinceloup de la Grange into which the cat is painted as a pet which is quite rare at this time. There is a legend that the Chartreux are descended from cats brought to France by Carthusian monks to live in the order's head monastery, the Grande Chartreuse, located in the Chartreuse Mountains north of the city of Grenoble (#Siegal 1997:27). But in 1972, the Prior of the Grande Chartreuse denied that the monastery's archives held any records of the monks' use of any breed of cat resembling the Chartreux (#Simonnet 1990:36–37). Legend also has it that the Chartreux's ancestors were feral mountain cats from what is now Syria, brought back to France by returning Crusaders in the 13th century, many of whom entered the Carthusian monastic order.The first documented mention of the breed was by the French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon in the 18th century. The breed was greatly diminished during the first World War and wild populations (#Helgren 1997:100-103) were not seen after World War II. A concerted effort by European breeders kept the breed from extinction. The first Chartreux were brought to the United States in 1971 by Helen and John Gamon of La Jolla, California. In 1987, the Cat Fanciers' Association (CFA) advanced the Chartreux breed to championship status (#Siegal 1997:27). There are fewer than two dozen active Chartreux breeders in North America as of 2007.Historically famous Chartreux owners include the French novelist Colette, Charles Baudelaire and French president Charles de Gaulle.